This is information that took far too long to find so I’m putting it in one place so it’s easier for anyone else who’s willing to do the work. My belief is autism is a storm of oxidative stress that you can get at from a myriad of directions, and I’ve chose to cover pieces that apply to the majority of the autist population. I don’t care how it happened more than I care how to improve my quality of life. Everything that I’ve listed below are ways to improve your quality of life, but not the entire picture. There are multiple vitamin deficiencies and disorders I’ve listed that are linked to sensory issues, depression, anxiety, etc., and can be addressed in ways that I don’t currently see being promoted. I relate the idea of having limited spoons to mitochondrial nutrients because that’s where you produce your ATP, not to mention that autism is a disorder of the mitochondria.
When I started my research, I had the idea that some of this wouldn’t apply to me. Several years down the road, I’m realizing that all of this applied to me, and that was why I was autistic. These are the basics to be managed to various degrees as they’re found across the majority of autistic persons, and I’ve tried to point out the patterns to make it more efficient. My goal is to create a resource that gives more perspective to ways we can help ourselves and significantly improve our quality of life for the long term in a way that is supported by the science that is based on studies of us as much as the general population.
Mitochondrial Nutrients for More Spoons
Here’s the important part and why I bring this up. When I started this research, I assumed that basic B vitamin deficiencies weren’t my problem because I ate well and was always told we got enough in our diet. Those vitamins were too basic and it had to be something more complicated. As I dug deeper and deeper, I realized that the basics were a huge part of the problem and that as complicated as the symptoms were, the relief I got from thiamine, B2, B6, and zinc was absolutely tangible.
Cofactors are important and worth chasing down. For example, molybdenum is needed for B2, but once B2 starts back up, B6 can work properly. B6 is needed to reduce producing endogenous oxalates and lowers cortisol, so my sleep improved and stress levels lowered when my body finally had enough of it to use. Zinc is needed for over 200 reactions in the body, from DNA to repairing tissue to the immune system, and pyrroles, lipopolysaccharides, and heavy metals will deplete it. Low zinc levels are related to altered mental states like psychosis and depression, which below I link to the burnout to psychosis cycle. Zinc is incredibly important. Thiamine is one that doesn’t fall into the pattern of being used up by pyrroles or oxalates, but it is used heavily by the body and nervous system, and is often a hidden deficiency. There’s a link to a small study below where only 3/10 autistic children tested for a thiamine deficiency, but 8/10 improved with TTFD (a version of thiamine). This is why sometimes testing for deficiencies isn’t always the answer.
This isn’t something to treat, per se, but understanding the importance of these nutrients enough to track your food to see what nutrients you lack or do testing to see where you might be deficient or just play. At the end of the day symptoms are king. I put this in here because my experience is that if you’re deficient in nutrients that are necessary for basic cellular processes, skip the fancy fixes until you have the basics in line; and then branch out to adaptogenics or pharmaceuticals or whatnot. I know several people prescribed Gabapentin for neuropathy that was actually a B vitamin deficiency, for example, but no one thought to check for those deficiencies before treating with drugs that potentially have long-term health consequences.
An energetic view of stress: Focus on mitochondria – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091302218300062
The Effect of Mitochondrial Supplements on Mitochondrial Activity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5332922/
The Role of Nutrients in Protecting Mitochondrial Function and Neurotransmitter Signaling: Implications for the Treatment of Depression, PTSD, and Suicidal Behaviors https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4417658/#:~:text=These%20nutrients%20include%20%CF%893%20fatty,for%20depression%20and%20suicidal%20behaviors.
Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorder—Current Progress of Mechanisms and Biomarkers https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.813304/full#:~:text=ASD%20is%20caused%20by%20oxidative,have%20been%20developed%20and%20employed.
Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination – https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.1512653112
Treatment of autism spectrum children with thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide: a pilot study – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12195231/
Amino Acids, B Vitamins, and Choline May Independently and Collaboratively Influence the Incidence and Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9318435/
What’s interesting about this gene is that the level it affects you largely depends on the number of mutations you have and your diet. So if you have heavy mutations and a poor diet, it’s going to have a larger impact on you than if you eat a wide variety of healthy food, fruits, and vegetables and have a small mutation. If not supported, it has the potential to have both mental and physical health consequences, not to mention create further vitamin deficiencies. Supporting the MTHFR gene has the potential to help high histamine levels, anxiety, cardiovascular health, blood clotting disorders, psychological health (including emotional rigidity), and neurotransmitter function. That’s a lot of possible benefit. Folate alone supports mental health so much that there’s a prescription methylfolate called Deplin prescribed for depression.
Treatment: One way to check if your MTHFR needs support is getting homocysteine levels checked by your doctor. This is because unsupported MTHFR mutations get in the way of the body’s ability to break down homocysteine, leading to higher levels than normal, and a blood check can tell you exactly how much. Autism is heavily linked to high homocysteine levels. Low homocysteine is rare, and is generally linked to heavy alcoholism and rare genetic mutations.
Folate, B12, and B6 are the front-line vitamins people/doctors often use to support and study this gene. What I don’t see in the studies but is widely advocated by physicians is that it’s very important to take in higher levels of choline in addition to this (think 900-1200 mgs a day). For some people, those four vitamins, or a combination of, are enough. For me, I required other nutrients, at least short term, so I’m including the link to a Ph.D. nutritionist who believes the research shows that you pee out glycine that needs to be replaced and your creatine pathways have the potential to break down. His solutions worked for me. He advocates that you’ll potentially need to take choline, glycine, creatine, B2, B3, B5 & TMG in addition to the folate, B12 & B6. Because all of the nutrients in our body are there to hand off atoms for various internal biochemical reactions, choline can be used by your body in place of folate (sort of a way of bypassing the gene’s dysfunction). There are problems with glycine pathways in autism, and from a personal perspective, adding glycine into my diet was one of the major initial game changers, which is why I’m doing more than just briefly mentioning it. His research also shows that the MTHFR interferes with your ability to handle B2. Autism has a heavy B2 deficiency. I know this is a long list of vitamins that you might need to support a mutation, and I want to note that not everyone will need this full list. I feel it’s important to show, though, that if you’re really struggling, the support you might need can be pretty immense and that a lot of these vitamins needed are also mitochondrial nutrients, which will improve your body’s ability to make ATP (more spoons!).
If going through his podcast is too overwhelming, here’s a breakdown of what he says:
-<I>5 mg of B2</I> to improve the ability of MTHFR to make methylfolate.
-<I>500 mg TMG 2x a day</I>. This acts as an alternative to methyfolate and helps you get around a poorly-functioning MTHFR.
-<I>5 grams of creatine</I>. This is a pathway that breaks down with MTHFR mutations, and it also helps reduce the need for methylfolate.
-<I>400-600 mcg of methyfolate</I> from food with an option 400 mcg of supplement
-<I>3 grams of glycine per meal</I>. Glycine helps stabilize the methylation system helping to prevent swings in mood, mental state, and energy. Low methyfolate levels lead to glycine loss, so the glycine is to replace what is lost. I want to note 9 grams of glycine a day is HIGH. That’s not supported by outside studies, but glycine itself has been studied in lower doses.
The autistic twist: B6 needs B2 as a cofactor to work. A study of 600 ASD kids found all 600 of them functionally deficient in B2. Keeping that in mind, B2 needs selenium, iodine, and molybdenum as a cofactor. Another very small study found a down regulation of molybdenum in 9/11 autists. That means that you potentially need to take molybdenum AND B2 to be utilizing B6 properly, but most certainly be taking B2. I list more cofactors below. You can use Cronos app to analyze your diet and see what vitamins you may be significantly missing, especially if you have a restricted diet. If you have issues with pyrrols, it will potentially create a zinc and B6 deficiency, which leaves even fewer nutrients for your MTHFR gene.
Links: Masterjohn –
Choline – Expanding on MTHFR
Glycine – Expanding on MTHFR
Glycine acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, which means it can have a calming effect on neural activity. Glycine can also inhibit the effects of excitatory neurotransmitters like glutamate, which are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of some neurological and psychiatric disorders, including ASD. Researchers have explored whether glycine supplementation or medications that modulate glycine receptors might have a therapeutic role in ASD by reducing excitatory neurotransmission.
Zinc Deficiency, Pyrroles, & Other Directions Zinc Deficiencies Can Come From
I want to highlight Pyrroles for a second because I bypassed this for months and only looked into it on a whim. Addressing pyrroles involves addressing zinc, B6, and oxidative stress, all of which are pivitol to reducing the struggles associated with autism. Whether I had a pyrrole issue or not, the answer to that provided me relief. Pyrrole disorder (aka pyroluria) is a dysfunction of the heme that results in the excessive production of a substance called pyrroles, which cannot be effectively cleared from the body and deplete levels of other vitamins, mainly zinc, B6, and omega 6. This is a dysfunction connected with methylation, and I feel the following quote from Dr. Wahl (https://www.wahllab.com/johannes-m-wahl), who is known for studying pyrrols, is relevant here. “Symptoms of pyroluria are greatly muted in undermethylated, obsessive/compulsive persons. These persons may be high achievers, with great internal tension….. Persons with pyroluria alone tend to underachieve, partly because of a poor short term memory and associated reading problems.” Pyrrols have been related to production in the gut because antibiotic use showed a reduced output in the urine, so we’re also back to a potential gut dysbiosis link. So in short, the pyrrols cause several deficiencies common to autism which cause major downstream issues.
Lipopolysaccharides are discussed further below.
Symptoms: Some common symptoms include mood swings, anxiety, depression, sensitivity to light and sound, poor stress tolerance, and difficulty with short-term memory. Personality traits like being shy or going mute, poor dream recall (because of depleted B6), and having a stitch in your side when you run have been connected to it. It’s been connected in studies with mental disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar, but is not exclusive to those conditions; and it runs strongly in families. Treatment typically involves supplementation with zinc, B6, magnesium, E & C, but also omega 6s in the form of evening primrose oil. Do not take a general omega supplement in this scenario, only omega 6 because omega 6 is what gets depleted. There’s a 2009 study showing all 230 autistic children had low serum zinc and copper, with zinc being lower than copper. They hypothesized it was mercury, but that zinc/copper ratio also fits the pyrrole profile. We assume too much without knowing what other options would answer the question we’re asking.
Testing needed: Nobody’s stopping you from taking zinc, B6 and omega 6 on your own, but the best route is always to test, if that’s an option. Unfortunately, a lot of doctors are going to have no familiarity with this. There’s only a few clinics that actively treat it. You can, however, test for zinc and copper either through your doctor or independent of your doctor. Zinc piconolate seems to be the consensus as the best form to use.
Autistic twist: B6 needs B2 as a cofactor to work. A study of 600 ASD kids found all 600 of them functionally deficient in B2. Keeping that in mind, B2 needs selenium, iodine, and molybdenum as a cofactor. Another very small study found a down regulation of molybdenum in 9/11 people. That means that you potentially need to take molybdenum AND B2 to be utilizing B6 properly, but most certainly be taking B2. I list more cofactors below. You can use Cronos app to analyze your diet and see what vitamins you may be significantly missing, especially if you have a restricted diet. Also, vitamin C is proven to produce oxalates and is not recommended to be taken over 250 mg a day if you have oxalate concerns.
Links: This article is pretty straightforward and explains pyrroles more in-depth: https://mindd.org/pyrrole-article
Side stitch when running or exercising: the anxiety/stress connection (and the pyroluria protocol of zinc and vitamin B6 as a solution?) – https://www.everywomanover29.com/blog/side-stitch-when-running-or-exercising-the-anxiety-stress-connection-and-the-pyroluria-protocol-of-zinc-and-vitamin-b6-as-a-solution
What it is: Oxalates are an ion used by microbes for communication between fungus and bacteria, and they’re found in foods at varying levels and also produced internally by our own bodies. They present as crystals that form in the body after deriving from oxalic acids. Oxalic acid levels rise in patients on a high oxalate diet (some food has more oxalate than others) or with metabolic disruption such as pyrrole disorder. Oxalates bind with calcium, which lowers the overall available calcium (look up spinach and oxalate for the most common example of how high oxalates create issues). Our bodies manufacture significantly more oxalates during stress responses. Humans lack an oxalate-degrading gene in our genome so we’re reliant upon our gut bacteria to handle the oxalate. Autism often doesn’t have that necessary bacteria because we have gut dysbiosis. When oxalate in the body gets too high, it interferes with mineral metabolism, changes mitochondrial function, and adds to oxidative stress. It can settle in tissues and joints where it causes havoc if there’s enough of it. Where you’re familiar with oxalates and don’t realize it is kidney stones. Kidney stones are oxalates.
Treatment: Treatment involves lowering the amount you eat and supporting your body’s stress response. Taking B6 is used to reduce the amount of oxalate your body produces.
Testing: OAT Test – https://mosaicdx.com/test/organic-acids-test
Autistic twists: Vitamin C will be metabolized into oxalate, and it’s recommended to take no more than 250 milligrams of this vitamin. B6 needs B2 as a cofactor to work. A study of 600 ASD kids found all 600 of them functionally deficient in B2. Keeping that in mind, B2 needs selenium, iodine, and molybdenum as a cofactor. Another very small study found a down regulation of molybdenum in 9/11 people. That means that you potentially need to take molybdenum AND B2 to be utilizing B6 properly, but most certainly be taking B2. I list more cofactors below. You can use Cronos app to analyze your diet and see what vitamins you may be significantly missing, especially if you have a restricted diet.
Example foods that are high oxalate: Spinach, Swiss chard, almonds and almond flour, all nuts especially almonds, chia seeds, sesame seeds, potatoes, sweet potatoes, chocolate, beets, kiwi and star fruit, soy, celery, black pepper. A day of eating a small amount of chocolate but juicing celery and including a spinach salad with a sweet potato and beets for dinner may sound healthy, but will be causing issues for your ASD. And just because it’s high oxalate doesn’t mean you can’t eat it, but it shouldn’t be limitlessly indulged and not eaten with a lot of other high ox foods.
DO NOT LOWER OXALATE LEVELS QUICKLY! Please review these resources if you want to address this side of our biology.
Links: TLO – Trying Low Oxalates, Facebook group
Wizard of Ox – Youtube videos explaining oxalates – https://www.youtube.com/c/WizardsofOxLowOxalateExperts
In autism, gut dysbiosis means we have a lower number of good bacteria and too much bad bacteria in our guts, which produce toxins that then burden our bodies, which already struggle with detoxing as it is. I want to highlight lippopolysaccharides in particular as one category of the bad bacteria that is linked with a number of the negative symptoms also found in autism, including hippocampus damage, anxiety, depression, a raised body temperature, etc. Then you’ve also got candida, fungus, yeast, etc., all found in the microbiome and all producing byproducts that impact the body negatively. This imbalance of good and bad bacteria means we have consequences like inflammation, altered metabolism, production of toxic substances, digestive problems, reduced production of beneficial compounds, a weakened immune system, mental health effects, and malabsorption of nutrients. When I say production of toxic substances, harmful toxins like aldehydes, ammonia, and histamine, to name a few, are released, which the body then has to stress itself to handle. Autism is known for not detoxing well and have a reduced ability to handle that burden. Bacteria also like to use our vitamins before we can, like candida, which can impact your B1 status, for example.
I mainly focus on lippopolysaccharides because I feel they’re important to address based on the extent of their impact. They have been strongly linked to the hippocampus damage found in ASD (think hundreds of hits if you search “lippopolysaccharides and hippocampus” in pubmed), anxiety and depression; but to learn more about how they specifically relate to autism, read the website I list below. Lippopolysaccharides are also another place where zinc is being depleted.
more ASD-specific information here –> https://www.microbialinfluence.com/ASD.html
Leaky Gut Plays a Critical Role in the Pathophysiology of Autism in Mice by Activating the Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Toll-Like Receptor 4–Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88–Nuclear Factor Kappa B Signaling Pathway – https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12264-022-00993-9#:~:text=The%20central%20pathway%20by%20which,and%20cause%20brain%20inflammation%20via
Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517817/
Dietary zinc concentration and lipopolysaccharide injection affect circulating trace minerals, acute phase protein response, and behavior as evaluated by an ear-tag–based accelerometer in beef steers https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8525595/
The Case for Vitamins: Everything is not “okay”
B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21840465/
-Hydrogen sulfide producing pathogens cause excess vasodilation leading to low blood pressure and poor circulation
-High levels of sulfite producing bacteria (like Bilophila and Candida) deplete thiamine
-Gut microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorder: From pathogenesis to potential therapeutic perspectives
Molybdenum & B2 Deficiencies Specific to Autism
Molybdenum (huge detox mineral and one of the 21 essential nutrients) was found to be down regulated in 80% of autistic subjects in a small study; but in the bigger picture, a molybdenum deficiency creates a B2 deficiency (which a study of 600 autistic children found all 600 had a functional B2 deficiency). Both deficiencies have consequences, but B2 in particular is needed for: promoting butyrate production in the gut (preventing hyperabsorption of oxalate and beneficial for autoimmune), modulating certain gut bacteria (helps gut dysbiosis), helping convert cholesterol to bile (remember we have a cholesterol issue), helping generate H2O2 to kill pathogens (helping gut dysbiosis), and is needed to utilize B12, B6, and iron. B12 and B6 are needed for the MTHFR gene, so following it back, B2 and molybdenum potentially are also necessary to support that gene if you’re autistic. B2 is also needed to process vitamin D, which vitamin D also helps regulate the gut. Molybdenum helps handle sulfur, aldehydes (drinking alcohol creates aldehydes in the body), and mRNA, among other things. Smokers can have higher levels of molybdenum, but otherwise, it’s necessary to get your daily intake from your diet.
You can get molybdenum levels checked by a doctor. Since the study was so small, I had mine checked, and they came back “under detectable levels.” Like the study, I was low.
Functional Vitamin B2 Deficiency in Autism: https://www.fortunejournals.com/articles/functional-vitamin-b2-deficiency-in-autism.html
This is a great page that goes very in-depth on B2 with cites – https://b12oils.com/b2.htm
Missing piece surfaces in the puzzle of autism – https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150804074037.htm
Urinary Essential Elements of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Mothers – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205186/#:~:text=It%20was%20observed%20in%20one,Warring%20%26%20Klovrza%2C%202000)
How this applies to autism: Tryptophan is needed for serotonin and melatonin.
If you want to read about it in depth, you can here: https://www.beyondmthfr.com/programmed-depression-tryptophan-gut-methylation-connection
Methylation & Why There’s Multiple Types of the Same Vitamin
Part of this process is when your body converts B vitamins into a more usable form using enzymes. The resulting forms are called methylated vitamins. If the conversion doesn’t happen, the original form remains in your blood and doesn’t get used effectively by the body. Most autists are going to do better with methylated vitamins, but not everyone. If one form of a vitamin doesn’t work for you, it’s very possible others will. I’m including this so people are aware that there are multiple forms of vitamins available that may work with your biochemistry.
Autistic twist: If you want to get your vitamin B6 levels checked and you’re autistic, you need to get the plasma P-5-P levels checked and not the traditional B6 test. Autism will potentially show high B6 in the standard test and low plasma P-5-P because of this methylation issue and potential B2 deficiency not supporting conversion. On the same note, if you test high B12, it could indicate a functional deficiency, which could happen for a variety of reasons. I write this so you know to research abnormal blood work a little deeper than you might otherwise have thought necessary.
“Elevated serum B12 levels may also be associated with a functional deficiency of the vitamin. Functional deficiency has been described despite high B12 concentrations and is due to a failure of cellular uptake or intracellular processing, trafficking or utilization.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550708/#:~:text=Elevated%20serum%20B12%20levels%20may,intracellular%20processing%2C%20trafficking%20or%20utilization
Your Vagus Nerve Needs Nutrients in Addition to TikTok Exercises
Autistic twist: We show deficiencies in multiple B vitamins and zinc, which are backed by numerous studies. In regards to zinc, we have the potential to have our zinc depleted from a couple directions, including pyrroles, gut dysbiosis, heavy metals, and lippopolysaccharides. Our MTHFR gene mutations also need higher levels of choline, so we have less choline to go for other needs, like the vagus nerve.
Links: The Autistic and ADHD Nervous System – https://neurodivergentinsights.com/blog/autistic-adhd-nervous-system#:~:text=When%20we%20have%20low%20vagal,struggle%20to%20adapt%20to%20changes
Vagus nerve stimulation as a potential adjuvanct to behavioral therapy for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders – https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2016.00609/full
RCCX Gene Theory
Genes and Pseudogenes: Complexity of the RCCX Locus and Disease https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362596
Burnout to Psychosis & Monotropism
Paradoxal Reactions & Treating Deficiencies
Example: This is the simplest scenario I’ve seen to explain why taking a vitamin you need might initially cause problems. Say you supplement vitamin B2, and so now there’s more B2 to go around for other reactions in the body (alternatively, if you reduced the intake of a vitamin that needed B2, like vitamin A, the same events will happen because vitamin A will not be utilizing B2 so more B2 will be available to go around). So potentially the B2 can now go for other methylation reactions, which includes the production of adrenalin. Producing more adrenaline increased the production of aldosterone, which results in the “turning on” of aldosterone. If you’re also B12 deficient and this happens, aldosterone gets inhibited by the B12 deficiency instead of functioning properly, which causes a potassium dump from the kidneys. It’s also a good example of why the B vitamins are suggested to be taken together. Track what you eat, see where you’re weak, and use cofactors to know what other vitamins you might need for support.
Oxidative Stress & Glutathione & Broccoli Sprouts
Glutathione is our master antioxident and vital to reducing oxidative stress. Glutathione is one of the biomarkers that is low in autistic populations.
“Glutathione is a sulfur-containing molecule composed of three amino acids, or building blocks of proteins: cysteine, glycine, and glutamic acid. It is a naturally-occurring molecule within cells that participates in the liver’s detoxification of many compounds, such as products from cigarette smoke, alcohol, and overdoses of aspirin and acetaminophen (Tylenol). Glutathione is part of a system of enzymes within all cells that reduce oxidative damage, such as that due to radiation, and it is involved in production of fatty acids1. It also facilitates the development and function of a variety of immune cells2. Glutathione was first proposed in autism when signs of oxidative stress in the children’s peripheral blood were documented3, 4. Glutathione also “donates” sulfur groups in chemical reactions through its cysteine component, and was suggested for use in autism due to inferred deficiency in sulfur availability4. Glutathione is not well absorbed when taken by mouth, and oral doses do not raise blood or tissue levels of glutathione. The fragile structure of glutathione cannot survive the gastrointestinal tract. When it is broken down, glutathione releases its component amino acids, two of which are excitatory (glutamate and cysteine) in the nervous system. The body’s cells must generate their own intracellular glutathione for it to be effective over the long term, and glutathione must be in its reduced form to be active within cells. The unreduced form is not metabolically active. Manufacturers do not indicate if their product is reduced. Reduced glutathione is also very expensive compared to the unreduced form.”
Broccoli sprouts – Broccoli sprouts are interesting on two fronts. They contain sulforaphane, which has shown in studies to “significant positive correlation between sulforophane use and ASD behavior and cognitive function.” On a more specific level, sulforaphane activates key genes and enzymes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification, reducing the impact of environmental toxins. Research has shown that sulforaphane activates detoxification genes like GSTM1 and NQO1 in human cells, protecting against environmental damage. It also demonstrates an upper limit for its benefits, as excessive doses can reduce gene expression. Animal studies reveal that broccoli sprout extract induces detoxification enzymes and glutathione synthesis in the liver. Human studies indicate that sulforaphane increases gene expression, with doses over 100g daily showing significant effects on phase II antioxidant enzymes. Clinical trials with broccoli sprout extracts demonstrate a notable increase in detoxification and the excretion of airborne pollutants. For individuals seeking higher doses, broccoli sprout extract supplements can offer support for natural detoxification pathways.
Nutrient deficiencies that are associated with sensory issues: zinc, B6, vitamin D
Nutrient deficiencies that lead to psychosis: folate, zinc
Pathway dysfunctions in autism and what nutrients support them (this isn’t a complete list, just showing patterns. It’s still in progress):
-Dopaminergic Pathway – B2, glycine, B6, B12, Zinc
-Serotonergic Pathway – glycine, zinc
-Glutamatergic Pathway – B6, zinc, glycine
-GABAergic Pathway – B6, zinc, glycine
-Cholinergic Pathway – choline
-Sulfur Metabolism – molybdenum, sulfur vitamins like thiamine
-Purine Metabolism – molybdenum
-Methionine Cycle Dysfunction – supporting MTHFR
-Folate Metabolism Abnormalities – methylfolate, choline
-Glutathione Pathway Dysregulation – glycine, N-Acetyl-Cysteine, taurine
-Mitochondrial Dysfunction – B vitamins, zinc, magnesium
-Low glutathione – taurine, glycine/NAC combined,
**Note – anything that requires B6 also requires B2 and anything that requires B2 requires molybdenum, selenium and/or iodine